SCIENTIA MORALITAS - International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research http://www.scientiamoralitas.com/index.php/sm <p style="line-height: 12.6pt; background: white; margin: 0cm 0cm 5.25pt 0cm;"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">SCIENTIA MORALITAS - International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research is an open access, blind peer-reviewed Journal published by the Scientia Moralitas Research Institute. </span></p> <p style="line-height: 12.6pt; background: white; margin: 0cm 0cm 5.25pt 0cm;"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">SCIENTIA MORALITAS is a multidisciplinary journal publishing a wide range of high-quality papers in the field of humanities, education, theology, human rights, economics, philosophy, juridical, political and communication sciences, religion, history, current events, legal and social issues, human behavior and so on. </span></p> <p style="line-height: 12.6pt; background: white; margin: 0cm 0cm 5.25pt 0cm;"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">The Journal is registered with the Library of Congress (DC, USA): </span><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2472-5331"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">ISSN 2472-5331</span></a><strong><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;"> </span></strong><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/issn/2472-5358"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">(Print)</span></a><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/issn/2472-5358"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;"> ISSN 2472-5358</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;"> (Online) and is published twice a year in both print and online.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 12.6pt; background: white; margin: 0cm 0cm 5.25pt 0cm;"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; 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To an extent as never before, computers are supporting human input, decision making and provision of data. AI, algorithms, robotics and big data are used to derive inferences for monitoring large-scale trends, detecting and measuring individual risks and chances based on data-driven estimations. Through machine learning algorithms and unprecedented data storage and computational power, AI technologies have most advanced abilities to gain and process information as decision making aids. Yet the currently ongoing digitalization disruption imposes ethical challenges and demands for regulatory consensus and legal action. When trying to find right, just and fair solutions in the introduction of novel technologies in society, the ancient legal codes of the Athenian city state, Roman law and the Code Napoléon may offer insights how to regulate complex new challenges ethically enriched with the wisdom and historical precedent of previous times. In particular, the ancient Athenian city state featured a diversified society that offered stratified citizenship rights and obligations. The Roman law conduct around slavery holds invaluable insights how to tax profitable market solutions and instill liability safety procurements for non-human market actors. The Code Napoléon defines different classes of market actors in society with different rights and obligations to engage in economic markets. All three legal regimes have endured for centuries and inspired very many different legal jurisdictions and national societies around the world and will hopefully imbue highest ethical mandates and standards in our contemporary arising technologies in a world-wide digitalizing world. Julia M. Puaschunder Dieter Feierabend Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 5 1 1 15 Ethics and Morality in Plato’s Vision http://www.scientiamoralitas.com/index.php/sm/article/view/53 Plato’s ethics lie at the centre of his philosophy. So to grasp his moral theory we need to understand how it is integrated with the enterprise as a whole. If we look closely at Plato’s metaphysics, we can easily ascertain that the Greek philosopher proclaims the impossibility of being in this world the foundation of the ultimate cause, which is situated in a superior of the ideal world. From this vision came the theory of two worlds or realities. A productive world, that of Ideas, the true reality, known through the eye of thought, the world of eternal prototypes; and the world is produced by the sensible world, the world of appearances. Ideas form a logical system subordinated to a Supreme Idea that is the Idea of ​​Good. Ion-Lucian Răcilă Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 5 1 16 34 Religiosity and Psychological Welfare. Approaching Perspectives in the Romanian Scientific Context http://www.scientiamoralitas.com/index.php/sm/article/view/54 The present study aims to emphasize some important aspects of the present researches regarding the relation between religiosity and health, with an accent on the results of the scientific research from Romania. As the numerous studies made at an international level in this area, the studies from Romania have emphasized especially the fact that, in front of a stressful event, people with a high level of religiosity adopt in bigger proportion strategies of religious coping, for reducing the stress, like the pray and redefining our own values. In a society opened to different cultural and religious offers, as it is the pluralist nowadays society, we consider it is necessary to have a deepening of the relation between religious experience, the world of values and the way of acting, especially in the case of younger generations. Maria Belea Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 5 1 35 47 Proof of the Ability of Hedge Funds’ Activists to Restructure Target Firms http://www.scientiamoralitas.com/index.php/sm/article/view/55 We study the ability of hedge funds to restructure target firms. A purchase of at least 3% of a target firm’s stake is subject to a 13D SEC Filing in the US. We use these filings to investigate the impact of such transactions in the period 2009–2020. Our method of choice is the event study approach. We set the event on the date of the transaction and compute cumulative abnormal returns (CARs) within a specified event window. Based on accounting metrics, such as return on equity and return on assets, we study how restructuring impacts target company’s capital structure. Based on SEC Section 13G filings, we are further able to distinguish between acquisitions with active and passive aims. We find that firms targeted for active purposes achieve higher abnormal returns and overall higher performance. We further look on the impact of the overall stock-market cycle on abnormal returns. We find that the level of abnormal returns for actively targeted companies remains higher with no regard to the market cycle. Based on these findings, we draw conclusions on the overall impact of hedge fund activism. Susanne Schwill Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 5 1 48 72 The Role and Importance of the Integrity Public Advertiser in Professional Ethics http://www.scientiamoralitas.com/index.php/sm/article/view/56 The public integrity warning appeared more than 30 years ago in America and the western states, having the fundamental role of protecting the existing ethical and moral values at the level of public and private institutions. Although in the literature, the integrity warning , has been defined as a person who discloses to the public or the authorities immoral or illegal activities carried out in a government department, a public or private organization, or a company, through this paper, we intend to emphasize that the activity of the whistleblower contributes directly to the promotion at the institutional level of professional ethics and observance of procedural rules in the behavior of each individual at the level of each institution, respectively its direct involvement in the supervision and concordant support of internal procedures and activity in accordance with the applicable legislative and normative framework; moreover ensuring that this regulatory framework is respected and complied with. Otilia Manta Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 5 1 73 86 The Sources of Pauline Ethos http://www.scientiamoralitas.com/index.php/sm/article/view/57 This article aims to elaborate on the sources of Pauline ethos by presenting individuals who influenced Paul’s thinking, and by demonstrating how his moral values were formed. Apostle Paul was the most influential apostle over all of Christianity. The very important contribution of his ministry can be seen in two aspects: missions and writing. Even though St. Paul demonstrated flexibility in the way he approached the mission, he had clear and strong values, evident in the way his epistemology followed his ontology. Paul was interested in becoming first and acting after. This perspective protected him from erroneous decisions. He also had to analyze very diverse types of situations. His values helped him to make correct decisions, based on the Old Testament and Jesus’ teaching. Paul, a traditional Jew, though born in Tarsus in a Greek culture, kept the very early Jewish values, which were rooted in the Old Testament. After his conversion, the apostles from Jerusalem, and later in Antioch, discipled him. But the critical moment of his life was the journey from Jerusalem to Damascus, when he experienced a direct revelation from Jesus. Pauline ethos was built based on the environments in which he lived. Ioan Szasz Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 5 1 87 102 Moral Leadership http://www.scientiamoralitas.com/index.php/sm/article/view/58 Leadership has become one of the most important topics and challenges in society. In spite of the growing literature available, leadership is still perceived as both a term having no definite form or distinct shape and an uncertain nature or significance. Beyond the lack of understanding concerning the nature, traits, objectives of the leading process, leadership is an essential component of the human condition, given the specific problems of the society, difficult to manage. Leadership is neither a position or title nor an action. It is instead an interactional process in which leaders and followers involve in reciprocal interaction to achieve common goals. An appropriate approach to this process recognizes the value of all elements of the process. However, this article proves that the actions of a leader impact significantly the perceptions, attitudes and actions of the followers. The more is known and understood about how the leader’s example conditions the follower’s responses in regard to the principles delineated, the more likely it is that the theoretical principles and ideals exposed by leaders in speeches and mission statements will yield satisfactory results. Cristian Marius Munteanu Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 5 1 103 113 The Offense of Failure to Declare Information. Some Moral and Legal Issues http://www.scientiamoralitas.com/index.php/sm/article/view/60 The offenses of forgery are provided in Title VI of the Special Part of the Criminal Code, and the newly introduced offense, respectively the omission of declaring information was introduced in Chapter III - False documents, after the offense False statements. This legislative change was necessary in the context of the coronavirus pandemic, especially since the facts of falsehood seriously undermine the truth and trust that must lead to the formation and development of human relations. Without the duty of respect for the truth and without the feeling of trust that the truth is actually respected, social relations would be possible only with difficult precautions and inevitable risks. Nobody knows exactly what the future holds for us, but surely society will change the economy, the medical system, the legal system, our lifestyle, etc. Nicoleta-Elena Hegheș Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 5 1 114 121 Tactical Particularities of Performing the Body Search http://www.scientiamoralitas.com/index.php/sm/article/view/59 The article presents and analyzes aspects related to the body search, starting from the regulation of this procedural act in the Romanian Criminal Procedure Code. Body search is a probatory procedure that involves the external body examination of a person, the oral cavity, the nose, ears, hair, clothing, objects that a person has on him or under his control, at the time of the body search. KEY WORDS: body s Adrian Cristian Moise Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 5 1 122 130 The Spiritual “Freelancers”: Young People, Religiosity and Community Problem Solving http://www.scientiamoralitas.com/index.php/sm/article/view/61 Earlier research showed that religion is related to participation among adolescents. It emphasized the effects of belonging (affiliation to groups and traditions) on community service among Western populations. This article takes one step further and focuses on religiosity as a potential motivation for community problem solving during adolescence and young adulthood, in the Eastern European Orthodox cultural setting. Data comes from several semi-structured interviews with participants in a civic project conducted in the city of Timisoara (Romania). Findings indicated a low impact of the social religious component on engagement. The cognitive dimension of belief and the emotional bonding (prayer, ritual connection to the higher reality) function as indirect motivators, through the moral element of behavior. Results also showed a privatization of spiritual life at young adults (the invisible religion): estrangement from doctrines and the development of an individualistic type of morality, meant to drive volunteer activities further. Adrian Schiffbeck Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 5 1 131 152 Sovereignty and Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Moldova http://www.scientiamoralitas.com/index.php/sm/article/view/62 The sovereignty, independence, and integrity of territory are the core values of the functioning and development of any state. These elements are directly linked with security assurance. The millenary history of Moldova people and its continuous statehood within the ethnic region of its national making makes it a sovereign and an independent state. The Republic of Moldova gains this popularity or independence after so many struggles; the struggle for language, parliament, and the social and economic rights of Moldova people. The Declaration of Independence Republic of Moldova instantly and clearly declares Moldovan sovereignty on top of the territory of Transnistria as this is a component of the historical and cultural region of the Republic of Moldova. Although, the Declaration of Moldova Independence is itself used as an altercation opposing Moldovan sovereignty over Transnistria. In order to build up the unitary concept, ‘Romanianism’ in Moldova became an ethnic nationalism, which became a warning for the existing state recognition; thus, the young started undermining the political positions that the country took in that period. The Republic of Moldova fights against Russia for political restraints. They fight for the predominance of private properties, economy, and market reforms. The will of the Republic of Moldova people would mean that they can decide their present and future, and in this regard, Romania supports the strengthening of its sovereignty. The basic notion of PF (Popular Front) understood the return of Soviet concepts as a political, slavish conformism, which is essentially the main reason for the economic and cultural doldrums. Gorincioi Grigore Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 5 1 153 168 Intercommunity Violence in Ghardaia between Heavy Fire and Compromise. Meanings and Mechanisms http://www.scientiamoralitas.com/index.php/sm/article/view/63 The city of Ghardaia in Algeria has experienced violent incidents, in recent years. As a result, this resulted in a deep fissure in the social fabric that had proved far from homogeneous, while the two religious communities of the local society, the Sunni Arab Maliki and the Ibadi community had coexisted for centuries in good intelligence. It can be seen from the course of events that the issue is far from being a simple conflict between the parties concerned; and we can not deny the involvement of a third party, namely political power and this through local authorities. In this tripartite equation, the precarious calm resulting from an interindividual and inter-communal compromise remains a subject of debate. From there we could apprehend the related meanings of discourses advocated by the actors of both parties, both at the individual and collective level. It is a question of exploring the places of confrontation and its observation following the verbal exchanges as well as the speeches marked, the paths taken by the two communities, in order to reach a compromise based on concessions previously considered as intangible principles. Also, the interventions of the security and political authorities to try to fill the differences and to bring closer the visions give rise to an analysis because by their responsibilities in the preservation of the security of the goods and the people, bring various justifications to guarantee an existence while maintaining the compromise in order to preserve the economic and political interests of the Mozabites. Hamdi Lahcene Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 5 1 169 181 “Still Death” by Hmilar: Intermediality and Intertextuality in Creating the Image of Passing http://www.scientiamoralitas.com/index.php/sm/article/view/64 The article focuses on the problem of creating the image of Death by contemporary artists. It deals with the process of transformation of a traditional image/images of Death, that is influenced by different cultural, social and religious codes. Being influenced by varied philosophical theories and arts’ masterpieces contemporary artists try to create their visualization of such basic concepts as Life, Death, and the Afterlife. Taking as an example the painting “Still Death” (2020), this article’s purpose is to attempt to discover an intertextual context and the impact of intermediality on creating of an eternal image. The significance of the research is dwelling on the determination of creating the image and possibilities of its being decoded. As the artists all over the world currently are influenced by different artifacts of synchronic and diachronic perspective, the problem of interpretation becomes one of the most actual in the understanding of the functioning of the cultural codes and their impact on society and reception later on through art works. Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 5 1 182 189 The Little Book of Good Habits for Young People http://www.scientiamoralitas.com/index.php/sm/article/view/66 ABSTRACT: One of the coordinates of the Western Enlightenment (Rotaru 2005, 353-354) and of the French Revolution from 1789 was the accentuation of anticlericalism and anti-royalism, leading to the replacement of the Catholic religious education with the laic scientific positivist education. In the 19th century Transylvania, the non-Uniate Orthodox Church and also the Uniate Orthodox Church, through its clerics and their activity for the national and cultural invigoration, will maintain the equilibrium and a constructive beneficial complementarity between the two types of education. The printed books will contribute to the cultivation of the national language and the awakening of the Romanian national consciousness, desiring the union of the three historical provinces; these valuable books required the authors to possess a rigorous religious education, according to the positive educational acquisitions of those times. Moise Fulea is representative for the young generation of the preparation phase of the Revolution from 1848. He involved in the process of finding positive solutions for the equilibrium between the laic and religious education, supporting the teachings of the Orthodox Church and also the Transylvanian Romanian community of the 19th century. The book presented in our work, translated by Moise Fulea and titled Cărticica Năravurilor Bune pentru Tinerime (The Little Book of Good Habits for Young People), celebrates 200 years from its first Romanian edition. It represented an important direction for all the generations before and after the Revolution from 1848. Stelian Manolache Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-26 2020-07-26 5 1 190 198 Editorial http://www.scientiamoralitas.com/index.php/sm/article/view/52 Moral values ​​are those that guide ethics. Ethics comes from the Greek ethos, which usually has meaning, and Aristotle, who used the term, studied people’s behaviors to see their tendencies, the relationship between morality and people’s actions, which were either moral or less moral. Ethics is the science that deals with the study of the main patterns of behavior and their relationship with morality. Christian ethics deals with the study of human behavior in the light of scriptural teachings and predominantly the Ten Commandments, and can conclude that ethics is meant to be a study of proper, harmonious and just behavior, and morality is the foundation of ethics. Parents are the first to lay the foundations for the later moral and ethical behavior of children, and the child will not necessarily become what the parent wants, but what he is, because he copies more what he sees than what he hears, to which he will add the values ​​discovered in the formative process of education. Morality teaches us how to think healthily, and ethics teaches us how to act in this direction. Ioan-Gheorghe Rotaru Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 5 1 vii viii