SCIENTIA MORALITAS - International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research 2023-12-26T01:33:08+00:00 Ioan Gheorghe Rotaru Open Journal Systems <p style="line-height: 12.6pt; background: white; margin: 0cm 0cm 5.25pt 0cm;"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">SCIENTIA MORALITAS - International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research is an open access, blind peer-reviewed Journal published by the Scientia Moralitas Research Institute. </span></p> <p style="line-height: 12.6pt; background: white; margin: 0cm 0cm 5.25pt 0cm;"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">SCIENTIA MORALITAS is a multidisciplinary journal publishing a wide range of high-quality papers in the field of humanities, education, theology, human rights, economics, philosophy, juridical, political and communication sciences, religion, history, current events, legal and social issues, human behavior and so on. </span></p> <p style="line-height: 12.6pt; background: white; margin: 0cm 0cm 5.25pt 0cm;"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">The Journal is registered with the Library of Congress (DC, USA): </span><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">ISSN 2472-5331</span></a><strong><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;"> </span></strong><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">(Print)</span></a><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;"> ISSN 2472-5358</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;"> (Online) and is published twice a year in both print and online.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 12.6pt; background: white; margin: 0cm 0cm 5.25pt 0cm;"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">SCIENTIA MORALITAS Journal is indexed and abstracted in the following databases/resources: </span><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">ERIH PLUS</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">, </span><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">RePEc</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">, </span><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">CEEOL</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">, </span><a href=";dbcode=SJXA&amp;type=dbpub"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">CNKI</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">, </span><a href=";view_op=list_works&amp;authuser=7&amp;gmla=AJsN-F4PD5a0UrvDxTpJvUaU8BgwB6zOapq3eiipoiwQAc51qZ04D5FStiqGA9eNOwh_9ifBMkjpW2iE8U4FIzJUMihvjXg2n0JcrVHjRxQdRtdDYcAri5ityQ9LKSqQFc0HFIV9pvno&amp;user=pzH6258AAAAJ"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">Google Scholar</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">, </span><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">OAJI</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">, </span><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">CiteFactor,</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;"> </span><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">ResearchBib</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">, </span><a href=";NAME=SCIENTIA%20MORALITAS%20-%20International%20Journal%20of%20Multidisciplinary%20Research"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">Journal Factor</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">, </span><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">IIJIF</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">, </span><a href=";referer=brief_results"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">WorldCat</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">.</span></p> Editorial 2023-12-25T08:10:06+00:00 Ioan-Gheorghe Rotaru Lack of reading leads to the drying up of the human imagination. Certainly, at the end of a day, some people, tired from the hard day, just turn on the TV, but in this way, everything is given ready-made, namely: the way the characters look, the scenario, the places, without giving you the opportunity to imagine these things yourself, without stimulating the imagination, which is so necessary to our nature. The ability to express oneself and to understand is also affected by the lack of reading, contributing to underdeveloped vocabulary. How one expresses oneself is influenced by the extent of one's reading habits. Poor, faulty expression can lead to problems in the social and professional relationships we form with those around us, so that our knowledge is somewhat limited and our general culture is poor. Neglecting to read can also affect one's judgment to some extent, because an uninformed person is easily taken for a ride. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Hate Crimes and Hate Speech: A Comparative Study 2023-12-25T07:03:48+00:00 Simona Franguloiu Nicoleta-Elena Hegheș Dignity is a precious asset that not only identifies us as free and equal human beings, but also allows us to live together in society. In fact, human dignity, together with the inviolable rights that are inherent to it, is an essential aspect of human civilization. For this reason, acts based on discrimination on various grounds (race, nationality, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religion, social category or disadvantaged group, disability, political opinion or any other grounds) have taken on a new approach as hate crimes. The future will decide and demonstrate whether there is a need for separate criminalization, with its own nomen juris, of these offences or if the regulation provided by the states to date is sufficient, given that it is eclectic. The paper examines the legal landscape regarding hate crimes and hate speech in the European context, emphasizing the importance of a coordinated effort in hate crime prevention. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ethical Considerations in Artificial Intelligence Development and Deployment 2023-12-25T07:09:14+00:00 Iosif Riviș-Tipei This article addresses the complex web of ethical considerations pertaining to artificial intelligence (AI). The paper provides a preliminary analysis of theoretical frameworks and practical implications deriving from the development and deployment of AI. We explore the ethical challenges posed by AI in domains such as privacy, bias, accountability, transparency, and the impact on employment. Existing ethical guidelines are discussed and a framework for ethical AI development is proposed, thus bringing a contribution to the ongoing discussion on responsible AI implementation. In this way, the paper is also a guide for fostering a more ethically sound and socially responsible integration of artificial intelligence technologies. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 A Study of the Effectiveness of the Class News and Announcement Forum as a Medium of Communication on a Course Moodle Page in a Pre-Degree Course 2023-12-25T07:11:59+00:00 Komal Karishma Krishna Raghuwaiya This study explores the effectiveness of the Class News and Announcement forum on the LLFXX Moodle page to make announcements and give general instructions to students. It also investigates whether there is a correlation between students’ Moodle logs on the Class News and Announcement forum and the different components on the Moodle page featuring the announcements. These Moodle components were classified as different forms of engagement (student to content, student to instructor, student to other students, student with the learning environments, student with assessments, and student with feedback). The association between the correlations was also examined. This research involved 80 Blended mode students from the LLFXX course (pre-degree course). Their Moodle logs were correlated (p-value) with the different components on the LLFXX Moodle page (forms of engagement) using Pearson’s Product Mean Correlation Coefficient test in SPSS. Those engagements that correlated were further studied for the degree of association (r-value). Most of the engagements correlated with the Class News and Announcement forums and the related components on the Moodle page. As a result, it can be concluded that the Class News and Announcements on the LLFXX Moodle page are effective. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Freedom - Real Property of the Will or Presupposition of Practical Reason 2023-12-25T07:15:12+00:00 Carla Ioana Ana Maria Popescu There is no freedom, in absolute value, in the sense of unconditional possibility, without reality and reality without causality. Nature does not present itself as a realm of freedom, but as a vast melting pot of causality, operating on the principle of continuous endogenous and exogenous conditioning. Every phenomenon derives from another phenomenon and not from a noumenon. In this immense chain of causalities, it seems that there is no place for freedom either as a thing in itself or as a phenomenon. The phenomenon exists in nature, it is part of the nature of things and its laws, as well as of human sensibility, the noumenum is part of reason, of the thing itself, of divinity and even of the immortality of the soul, an idea so dear to man, who lives both in the empirical, that is, in the sensible, in the universe of things, of phenomena, that is, in the law of nature, of causality, and in the rational, that is, in the world of thought, of faith, of reason, of the thing itself, of the noumenum. In vain shall we seek the sources of freedom in the laws of nature. Nature does not operate according to the principles of freedom, but according to those of causality. This issue has been - and still is - debated at length in the human world. So entrenched and, at the same time, so fluid, so uncertain, has this debate been implemented in the science and art of thought, which may be a possible fragment of the ongoing definition of philosophy and its place in the world, that no one today is bothering with it anymore. There are other more pressing and handier things to do on planet Earth and in the Universe. And yet, man lives not only in the empirical universe, in the sensitive universe, but also in the universe of thought, of reason, of will, not only in the real, identifiable, cognizable universe but also in the rational, virtual, transcendental universe, in the universe of knowledge, of desire and of the capacity to create, to produce cognition. Here, in this rational and voluntary modus vivendi of human beings, which has, in its essence, as a necessary determination, research, discovery, the world of concepts, reflection and thought finds its sources of freedom. It follows that it too is conditioned. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Equality in Education 2023-12-25T07:18:12+00:00 Mirela Macelaru This article explores the multifaceted concept of equality in education, tracing its roots to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. The discussion delves into the complexities of implementing equality, considering access, learning processes, educational outcomes, and external results. Four distinct areas of applicability are identified, with a particular focus on the Eastern-European context. The article critically examines the potential tension between achieving equality and maintaining the quality of education, as suggested in the UNICEF paper. Additionally, it proposes an alternative model of implementation grounded in a relational approach at the personal, communal, and societal levels. This relational endeavor emphasizes recognizing biases, opposing unequal treatment, and challenging discriminatory traditions, offering a nuanced perspective on the practical implementation of equality in education. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The 21st Century: Bi-, Cross-, Inter-, Mono-, Multi-, Pluri-, Poly-, or Trans-Cultural Education? 2023-12-25T07:20:45+00:00 Beniamin Liviu Roș The deployment of globalization, information explosion, and mass culture have brought about terms such as bicultural education, cross-cultural education, intercultural education, monocultural education, multicultural education, pluricultural education, polycultural education, and transcultural education in both English language dictionaries and literature on education. These terms are frequently and/or interchangeably used, leading to confusion. This article investigates and defines these terms, comparing them to see if their interchangeable usage is justified or not. The importance of this issue resides in the fact that educators need to know which type of cultural education best prepares for “life, work, and citizenship.” Three conclusions are drawn: the authors cited in references have failed to provide a clear semantic definition or a distinct epistemological foundation for these concepts; there are two main types of cultural education – passive and active; and using only the terms multicultural education and intercultural education could be a suitable solution to the issue. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Women in the Military Negotiating Work and Family Conflicts While Reproducing Gender Inequality 2023-12-25T07:24:04+00:00 Chelli Plummer Through a qualitative study of military women who are mothers, this article examines decision-making processes mothers undergo while negotiating the competing devotions of work and family. Subjective experience and the women’s individual life worlds are often overlooked in research on juggling work and family. The military and family are competing institutions (Segal 1986) and consequently, women confront contradictory expectations of the roles they play. This article addresses the following questions: What is the lived experience of the women interviewed in this study as mothers and soldiers? How do they negotiate the competing demands of work and family, and how do they justify not meeting the demands when compromise is necessary? These questions are important as this segment of the population is both growing and ignored. Research on women in the military as mothers is virtually nonexistent. The limited literature that does exist focuses on gender discrimination (Harris 2009) and ignores mothers all together. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Leadership and Management in Educational Intrapreneurship in Romania 2023-12-25T07:29:01+00:00 Enache Tușa Through its dimensions, leadership is considered a dynamic process of organizing and coordinating a group of people, building and developing relationships at the group level, which mobilizes the members of the organization and determines them for a standard, shared vision of the organization, increasing the institution’s performance, quality, but also the facilitation of change at the level of the respective organization (Stegăroiu et al. 2019). Practical aspects, experiences, and theoretical approaches in the field of education have highlighted the existence of mutual determinations and correlations between educational leadership and positive changes made at the level of the school organization, embodied in the flexibility of teaching staff, their enthusiasm and openness to new things, to innovation. This approach aims to identify, synthesize, complete, and explain leadership in educational intrapreneurship - increasing the academic quality within the organization as a result of capitalizing on the intrapreneurial skills of the leader in the context of making changes permanent. Through the theoretical-methodological approach, the author proposed to make a valuable and relevant contribution to the existing practice, considering the investigative approach as representing the beginning of a process and not its end. The article emphasizes the importance of embracing change and developing intrapreneurial leadership in school organizations to adapt to the evolving socio-economic, cultural, and political landscape. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Conceptualizing Religion and Globalization in the Sociology of Religion 2023-12-25T07:31:07+00:00 Cristian Vasile Petcu What is new and specific to contemporary global forms is the extent to which religions globalize, the way in which they adapt to global conditions or the new morphologies they adopt. The global, however, does not only represent a range of social, political, economic or technological conditions, but also symbolizes a theoretical paradigm that requires a shift in focus and urges the sociology of religion to think beyond national contexts and in a comparative manner. Consequently, by adopting a global point of view, the deepening of religion has changed nowadays where the world thinks globally rather than nationally or regionally. The article explores how world religions have shaped civilizational transformations and their interaction with globalization, and analyzes how they contribute to the global landscape from both a historical and contemporary perspective. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Students’ Suggestions for Improvements on a Pre-Degree Language Course Moodle Page at the University of the South Pacific 2023-12-25T07:37:34+00:00 Komal Karishma Krishna Raghuwaiya Roneel Chand This study explores students’ responses in the form of suggestions on what could be done to enhance the learning process and increase interaction on their course Moodle page. The study involved 109 pre-degree students enrolled in LLFXX, a compulsory English course for the Foundation program. A questionnaire was designed on Moodle and 80 Blended and 29 Print mode students were enrolled on this Moodle page to answer this questionnaire. Students’ responses were classified according to their mode of study (Blended and Print) under two themes: enhance the learning process and increase interaction on Moodle. Their response identified changes that could enhance their learning and increase their interaction on the LLFXX Moodle page. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Elements of Energy Geopolitics 2023-12-25T07:42:57+00:00 Alexandru Petrea This article delves into energy geopolitics as a complex field involving the analysis of how states and international actors interact to ensure access, control and efficient use of energy resources - oil, natural gas, coal and nuclear power. Collaboration in joint projects such as gas pipelines or renewable energy projects can be a key element in establishing strategic relationships. A crucial aspect of energy geopolitics is the degree of dependence of some countries on energy resources and, in this sense, states that hold significant resources often have a strategic advantage, being able to influence geopolitical relations by providing or restricting access to these resources. This article also explores the transportation routes whose control gives states significant influence in geopolitical dynamics, vulnerabilities and energy security, the transition to cleaner and renewable energy sources, and the extraordinary impact of technological advances. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Implementation of E-learning in Algeria during the COVID-19 Time: Case Study of Relizane Second-Year English Department Students of Master Degree 2023-12-25T07:46:16+00:00 Cherifa Benkaddour This study investigates the use of e-learning, primarily focusing on the Moodle platform, at the University of Relizane in Algeria during the three years of the pandemic. The participants in this study were second-year master’s students of English in the Department of English at Relizane University. Forty second-year master’s students were invited to answer a questionnaire of three open questions and one open-ended question. The responses were analyzed quantitatively. One of the most interesting findings of this study is that the unexpected and surprising lockdown that imposed this electronic type of learning has been difficult for both students and the governing body to cope with. One conclusion of this study is that the Algerian University and its students are still unready to embrace the use of e-learning, preferring the old traditional type of learning. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Social Worker and the Religious Education Teacher in the Context of the Romanian School 2023-12-25T07:50:03+00:00 Emanuel Claudius Nicolescu The challenges that students in Romanian schools face are increasing day by day, from learning difficulties to different challenges in adapting to the school context. Peer pressure and contemporary temptations that put pressure on students are often impossible to overcome. Therefore, there is a need for the support for those students who are in vulnerable situations, support offered by the school’s social worker and the religious education teacher in order to overcome the moments that can have a negative impact on the educational evolution and also on the harmonious development of the student. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Anthropological Values from the Work of C.S. Lewis Necessary for a Qualitative Correction of the Media 2023-12-25T07:52:33+00:00 Florin Matei Modern times and the speed at which information flows are leading civilization in directions it did not anticipate, therefore, the evaluation and correction of media quality are more important than ever. But given the context in which we find ourselves, the work of C.S. Lewis is a rich source of anthropological values that can create the essential foundation for improving ethics and integrity and contemporary media. Modern times are characterized by fake news that can have unforeseen consequences, among them the formation of a precarious anthropology, consequently truth about the human being is vital. The role of anthropological values that C.S. Lewis proposes can contribute to the improvement of the human being by offering perspectives and concepts of life with important elements that define man from a moral and spiritual point of view. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 A Comparison of Maternal Stress Indicators for Women Mothering from Afar and Proximally 2023-12-25T07:55:34+00:00 Chelli Plummer This paper examines several indices of maternal stress (Hock et al. 1989) to answer the question, “Does where a child resides affect the stress a mother experiences in parenting?” The analysis focuses on maternal self-report measures using the Maternal Separation Anxiety Scale (MSAS; Hock et al. 1989) and its three subscales. Additionally, I argue that career salience, or the importance one places on one’s career, offers a protective measure to maternal stress. In the remainder of the paper, I will review the literature on long distance mothering, deployment parenting and maternal stress and then introduce the research study, discuss the findings and results, and make suggestions for policy reforms. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Trends of Current and Future Retail Formats Based on Customer Personas. Implications on the Example of the Premium Automotive Retail 2023-12-25T08:00:18+00:00 Tim Charly Schmacke Roland Vogt External factors are influencing the strategic orientation of today’s automotive retail. Innovative architecture, new job roles and digitalized processes are affecting the automotive dealerships and the whole industry. Furthermore, the current decision-making process in the retail industry is intricate due to the lack of available foresight regarding future investment opportunities. Consequently, retailers need to be able to anticipate which strategic direction could be future-oriented, which adjustments they need to anchor to create a sustainable environment and which shift is effectively needed to attract today’s and future customers. Therefore, the issue of the automotive retail is to be well prepared for upcoming trends, shifts and new competitors by setting up a distinct market position. Although many changes in today’s automotive retail are currently initiated, the uncertainty of the future-oriented retail format is omnipresent. New retail formats are developed and partly implemented in today’s retail sector to reach the customers and address their needs of buying a car. The following journal paper is facing the objective to map retail formats with persona types of automotive customers. Thus, retail industry leaders such as experts in automotive retailing are interviewed to get an impression of how to map automotive retail formats with distinct customer groups. Hypotheses can be derived as well as closing the current knowledge gap in scientific literature of customer needs and upcoming retail sales formats. At the same time widening and deepening the research in the fields of marketing, sales and strategic management while using and discussing rigorous research methods. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 25 Years Since the Adoption of the Aarhus Convention 2023-12-25T08:04:00+00:00 Elena Emilia Ștefan According to internationally agreed rules, the public is one of the key actors to be involved in the adoption of environmental legislation. At the same time, by means of their laws, States guarantee citizens access to information of public interest. This year marks the 25th anniversary of the adoption of the Aarhus Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters. The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether the content of the Convention is still relevant in the current global context. The topic has relevance in the present times and has practical applicability, being a topic of general interest not only to the public authorities but also to the general public. In order to achieve the proposed objective, the analysis is interdisciplinary, the chosen topic being at the confluence of several disciplines: administrative law, environmental law, and public international law. The structure of the paper is divided into three sections: section I presents the reflection of the Aarhus Convention into the national law, section II analyzes the European framework applicable to the public participation in environmental decision-making, and section III highlights the relevance of the Aarhus Convention in the present times - a case study. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Self-Love as the Development of Neighborly Love through the Prism of God’s Love: Augustinian Love through the Lens of Oliver O’Donovan 2023-12-25T08:07:21+00:00 Nicolae Cretu This study examines Augustine’s perspective on love through four defining aspects: cosmic love, positive love, rational love and benevolent love. O’Donovan will demonstrate, in dealing with these four aspects of Augustine’s thought, how he manages to move from one to the other in the order necessary for the equitable fulfilment of the commandment of love given by Christ to his disciples. These sensible claims have been thoughtfully fulfilled by Oliver O’Donovan, in his eminent book The Problem of Self-Love in St. Augustine, where, in one section, he makes an essential systematization of love in Augustine, a systematization we shall present in this study. 2023-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Critical Materials Raw as Leverage in Global Geopolitics 2023-12-26T01:33:08+00:00 Anca Ursache The most economically critical and high supply risk raw materials are called critical raw materials and are essential to the functioning and integrity of a wide range of industrial ecosystems. The enormous appetite for resources (energy, food and raw materials) exerts extreme pressure on the planet, being the cause of half of greenhouse gas emissions and more than 90% of biodiversity decline and water stress. Resource access and sustainability are key to the EU’s resilience in terms of raw materials. The Critical Raw Materials Act is an essential element of the equation in this generational societal transition. It aims to strengthen all stages of the European value chain of critical raw materials by diversifying EU imports to reduce strategic dependencies, improving the EU’s ability to monitor and mitigate the risks of disruption to the supply of critical raw materials, and improving circularity and durability. In this sense, the European Commission proposes a new Regulation on Critical Raw Materials to ensure that the European Union has access to a safe and sustainable source of supply of critical raw materials essential for the transition to clean energy. This article highlights the importance of the critical raw materials in the European Union’s pursuit of the Green Deal and the challenges associated with the growing global resource demands. 2023-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023